How Can Children Aspire to Careers They Don’t Know Exist?

By Ed Hidalgo

I’m the Chief Innovation and Engagement Officer for my school district, which is a title you might expect at a technology company, not at a school district. That’s not an accident. While it’s frequently a longer path to enact change in education than it is in business, districts can innovate. We’ve worked hard to give our students new, challenging and necessary curriculum programs including coding, presentation literacy, social and emotional learning and one I’m particularly excited by called the World of Work (WoW).

WoW is a significant innovation because education experts used to think that career education began in high school. We start in kindergarten, and we make a point to avoid pouring kids into career buckets. Instead, we begin early to help students understand their strengths, interests and values and to use those self-discovered qualities to illuminate potential career opportunities. We keep the feel of exploration because through exploration comes excitement and through excitement comes engagement.

This is not a piecemeal thing – we’re all-in, 100 percent inclusive and equitable in WoW – meaning that every K-8 classroom is part of the program, mapping out pathways and allowing for unexpected journeys.

WoW gives every child important exposure to connect learning to their lives after high school. We infuse that objective with lessons helping students understand who they are, what things they like to do, what problems they may enjoy and how and where they may prefer to solve them. By ensuring students are exposed to at least six different career opportunities annually, starting in elementary school, WoW students will see, explore and consider no less than 54 different careers by the time they move on to high school.

To do that, we use well-known career development theory, the Holland RIASEC framework, as a comprehensive and unique strategy (here’s a more detailed dive). Traditional career interventions often used assessment to drop students into career interests. The WoW approach lets students experience all areas of the career frameworks, thereby eliminating concerns about tracking or premature foreclosure.

Our attention to a student’s interests is key because we know these have the strongest correlation to career satisfaction, income and job performance over a lifetime. We also start early because know that’s when true exploration can happen. By the time a student is in high school, strengths and interests are solidifying and being reinforced. By the time someone is in their 20’s, they are remarkably settled.

While these important qualities are in formation, our WoW program uses great technology and expertise to put students in direct contact with career professionals and practitioners, encouraging career exploration and iteration. We do that by accessing a deep and diverse library of grade-appropriate videos with career professionals – not show and tell, but ask and answer. Often, we also arrange live small group, classroom-to-professional video conferences and directed activities so students can see and hear these working experts while personally engaging with them.

Students have a video chat with a zoologist, Janine Bartling, from the Hogle Zoo in Utah.

We believe it’s already making a big difference by opening eyes and minds to the real opportunities that exist beyond school. We also know this is good for business because our students are engaged and ask well-informed, thought-provoking questions when visiting with working professionals.

Perhaps most importantly, by connecting exciting career options to learning, class work becomes more valuable, reinforcing the idea that school is a path to something that can be fun and rewarding. If a student is excited by working with animals, for example, there are few things an educator can say that is more powerful than hearing a zoologist stress the importance of science while standing in a waddle of penguins. Instantly, biology is much less boring.

People in jobs are among the best resources for teaching and learning. Getting them in front of our students, early and often, makes a big difference. And the only way to do that, at scale, is by using innovative technology and coordinated planning.

This level of innovation is not only possible, it’s happening in our school district. The last thing we want to do is keep it a secret (we are proud that the program was also recently written about in the Hechinger Report). There is deep, rich, lifelong value in exposing students to career and life paths early. We should all take an active role – and this includes business people, researchers and working professionals from all walks of life – sharing our experiences with students so that these innovative insights show up in our classrooms as early as possible, not after the die has already been cast.

For more on career exposure and pathways, see:

Ed Hidalgo is the Chief Innovation and Engagement Officer for Cajon Valley Union School District and previously, the Director of the World of Work Initiative at the University of San Diego Institute for Entrepreneurship in Education. Connect with him on Twitter: 

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Powerful Learning Experiences: Why All Students Deserve Access

By Connie Yowell and Tom Vander Ark

Consider for a moment how access to learning experiences can vary dramatically for students. One student goes to a school where they regularly conduct research projects, they can freely work in the school’s makerspace, they compete on the debate team, and have a summer job with real responsibility. Networking and finding opportunities within the community also come easily to this student.

The other student spends their school day filling out worksheets, very rarely are they engaged in projects and action research, and their afterschool job is at a fast food restaurant. They’re passionate about graphic design but they have no idea how or where to turn to obtain those skills.

The equity gap in America starts as an experience gap. Oftentimes, many students from a low socioeconomic status and minority background lack access to the learning experiences that their wealthier and non-minority peers participate in. And yet in many communities, the learning experiences, especially out-of-school experiences, do exist–it just becomes a matter of how to navigate them.

It is time for us to focus on eliminating the experience gap — to ensure that all students have access to robust in and out of school learning experiences which prepare them for the future of learning and work.

Six reasons powerful experiences matter

  1. Voice and choice build agency. Jonathan Rochelle, Director of Product Management at Google, thinks confidence is the most important disposition for the innovation economy. That starts with the ability to make some choices in what to learn, when and how. One example of this are the playlists that LRNG has developed which not only provide flexible learning environments but also provide students with a choice to turn what they’re passionate about into what they choose to learn. Playlists are curated into media-rich thematic experiences which students can progress through online and within their community.
  2. Active learning beats passive consumption. Students learn best by doing. Through collaborating with peers, engaging authentically with the learning material, and actively participating in learning experiences students deepen their independent, creative, and critical thinking skills.
  3. Taking initiative provides opportunity. Through authentic experiences, students learn to take initiative, to shape impact opportunities including projects, campaigns, and startup organizations.
  4. Extended challenges build priority skills. Students should not fly through every project or research experience with ease. By experiencing challenges or difficulties in learning, students are able to problem solve and apply critical thinking — skills that are essential for their academic and career growth. What’s more is they develop grit, resilience, and learn what it means to be successful, and persevere, in tough settings.
  5. Self-awareness develops in the face of diversity. Becoming self-aware happens over time and is developed by learning to read social situations, building relationships, and collaborating through difficult circumstances.
  6. Community connected experiences build social capital. Communities play an integral role in networking individuals to ensure that society thrives. LRNG recognizes the power of communities and is working specifically with cities and organizations to connect learning experiences to career opportunities.

It is clear that a broader set of learning aims are increasingly important and you can really only get at those from rich experiences. They aren’t something you could build in a traditional setting. For these experiences to be successful they must be designed in an intentional way and approached with a student-centered focus.

Experiences should be flexible, allowing students to engage with the content in ways that best suit their learning style. Flexibility also requires an innovative approach in that learning can truly happen in a variety of ways using multiple devices and mixed reality media. A student-centered focus also means that learning is geared towards students’ passions and allows them to make real-world connections to what they are learning, thereby increasing their interest and engagement in the experience. While all of these conditions may not be met with every experience, all experiences should include some of these elements.

Designing powerful learning experiences extends beyond the school day to include after-school time as well. In order to prepare for the future of work, students need exposure to actual work experiences that are rich and robust. From learning how to search, apply, and interview for work to developing skills once a job is landed, intentionally designed, work-based learning experiences such as internships, apprenticeships and summer employment allow students to begin honing their career skills and testing out their passions. The same criteria that apply for creating powerful learning experiences within school, are also applicable to work-based learning experiences.

Businesses play a large role in ensuring opportunities for students exists within their community and many nonprofit organizations often fill in the gap by not only providing students with the pre-work skills they need to land employment, but often times they also have developed partnerships with businesses to ensure opportunities for young people exist. This is the work that LRNG is doing with many of their city-wide partners, and we’ve also seen similar initiatives developed through the work Educurious is doing.

It is only by equalizing access to opportunities by providing authentic, student-centered, powerful learning experiences for all students that we will close the experience gap. If you are looking for ideas or ways to get started with this work, consider looking at LRNG and how they are providing innovative ways for young people to learn by connecting them with their passions, people, and pathways.

For more, see:

Connie Yowell is CEO of LRNG. Connect with her on Twitter: 

This Post was originally published on Medium.

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How Cengage Supports the Shift to Competency

Boston-based Cengage is one of the largest U.S.-based higher education and technology companies. With about 5,000 employees, Cengage reaches 11 million higher education students. With more than half their revenue coming from digital products, Cengage is managing the shift from publisher to tech company.

Cengage recently announced Skill Map. “Instead of starting with a general education,” says Jonathan Lau, Senior Vice President of the Skills Group at Cengage, Ed2Go is designed to “start with an outcome, a job, a sense of what jobs are available, what’s interesting, or what’s in demand–especially locally.”

“With Skill Map, we’re making it easy for job seekers to figure out what jobs might be right for them, and then get the right skills and education for that job,” added Lau. “It’s also a great tool for those working with job seekers, like workforce boards, to help get people moving along the career journey faster.”

Ed2Go was acquired more than 10 years ago. It now has a catalog of more than 600 courses focused on career journeys. Cengage partners with employers and colleges to reach students. They work with many community colleges, often supporting continuing education with on-site and online courses.

The Cengage team has mapped skills from each course. Using the Skill Map, job seekers can find high demand local jobs and identify what courses to take.

Lau said his team would like to move to smaller units of learning, to create more modular content based on customer use cases and improve links to certification exams.

The opt in platform allows learners to share information with prospective employers about the work they, their location preference and academic progress. For example, about 40,000 students have taking courses on heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Employers view student profiles and contact high potential candidates.

Learning Objects

Launched in 2003, Learning Objects was acquired by Cengage in 2015. It powers the Ed2Go platform and enables learning experiences that better track and showcase learner knowledge, skills, and competencies.

The Learning Objects platform gives learners insight into what they know and suggests next steps. It diagnoses gaps and tracks progress to mastery. Adaptive assessments provide continual feedback.

Deborah Everhart, VP of Design and Innovation at Learning Objects, says that increasingly, employers care less about course grades more about soft skills development.

Some Learning Objects programs use the LEAP (Liberal Education America’s Promise) VALUE (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education) rubrics for work and life skills including Inquiry and Analysis, Critical Thinking, Creative Thinking, Written Communication, Oral Communication, Quantitative Literacy, Information Literacy, Reading, Teamwork, Problem Solving, Civic Knowledge and Engagement. The VALUE framework is widely used in higher education but not well known in K-12.

Learning Objects supports higher education customers like EdPlus, the division that powers ASU Online and Continuing Education. They also support smaller occupationally oriented community college programs.

Everhart led the IMS advisory group that developed the Open Badge v2.0 specification. She was also involved in the development of the IMS Comprehensive Learner Record (formerly the Extended Transcript). For those of us interested in the shift to competency and more descriptive learner records, these are important advances.

High School As a Benefit

As recently noted, more companies are sponsoring degree pathways. In retail, that often starts with high school completion. Cengage offers the Career Online High School in partnership with Smart Horizons Career Education. They partner with McDonald’s, Walmart and Hilton to offer the program to their employees.

Enrolled students are paired with an academic coach who assists with developing an individual career plan, offers ongoing guidance and encouragement, evaluates performance, and connects the learner with the resources needed to demonstrate mastery of the course material. Graduates get a high school diploma when done, not a GED, and many students earn a credentialed career certificate. More than 80% of graduates report that they have enrolled or plan to enroll in post-secondary education.

It’s a show what you know world. New career and degree pathways are extending affordable access to millions of learners.

For more see

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How I Know: Austin ISD Focuses on Social Emotional Learning

“Wise feedback is delivered with love, clarity and a belief that the student’s performance will improve.” –  Dr. Lisa Goodnow, Associate Superintendent of Academics and SEL in Austin ISD

Learning science research, such as that articulated in Turnaround for Children’s recently released report Key Findings and Implications of the Science of Learning and Development, underscores that most human development is rooted in relationships.

Applying that finding on a daily basis, the Austin ISD team emphasizes the importance of relationships as a common thread that helps the district integrate efforts around two of their key focus areas: formative assessment practice and Social Emotional Learning (SEL).

AISD is part of a three district collaborative project: How I Know: Designing Meaningful Formative Assessment Practice. #HowIKnow was created in an effort to improve and impact formative assessment practice for teachers and students. Even prior to joining the project, AISD had been emphasizing the connections between formative assessment and Social Emotional Learning, and they are now advancing these ideas – – and their formative assessment practice – – even further through a focused professional development process.

Describing the role of relationships within formative assessment, Dr. Lisa Goodnow, Associate Superintendent of Academics and SEL in Austin ISD, asserts that “A prerequisite for formative assessment is a classroom culture of trust and respect. Building on learning science (including the work of David Yeager from UT Austin), we are intent on ensuring that our teachers build relationships and deliver feedback wisely.”

It is clear that SEL skills are important to formative assessment practice. Austin has dedicated significant energy to SEL development, with district leaders participating in a fellowship program and also focusing on the development of their own SEL wheel (shared below). Further strengthening Austin’s commitment is the fact that SEL contributes directly to academic learning. The purposes of SEL in AISD is, in short, to:

“Enable students to develop in safe, inclusive, culturally responsive, academically engaging, and equitable learning environments that cultivate self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making. Development of these five SEL competencies will also contribute to students’ self-identity, agency, cultural consciousness, and academic tenacity.“

Further, with the goal of formative assessment practice to advance and inform learning processes, AISD has also connected design thinking processes. Austin ISD established an Innovation Design team and charged the group with developing an assessment philosophy that will inform how the district can align practices to support student engagement, teachers as designers, and the work with formative assessment.

How I Know in Austin

The Austin Independent School District (Texas) serves a city that is known for being a hub of ideas and innovation, and that tops the nation’s rankings of the best communities to live in. Austin ISD educates approximately 83,000 students and embraces 130 diverse school communities in one of the fastest-growing, ever-changing metroplexes in the country.

According to Associate Superintendent Dr. Lisa Goodnow, “In Austin ISD, we are reinventing the urban education experience by driving innovation in teaching and learning. We are shifting practices to support our goal for all teachers to become designers of engaging, student-centric teaching and learning that embeds formative assessment practice at the core of instruction.”

AISD is part of a three district collaborative project: How I Know: Designing Meaningful Formative Assessment Practice. #HowIKnow was created in an effort to improve and impact formative assessment practice for teachers and students in three pilot districts (Dallas Independent School District, Austin Independent School District and Tulsa Public Schools).

Through the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation sponsored initiative, these districts will identify, scale and share successful approaches for designing formative assessment practice in classrooms. Their learning and strategies will be shared through the How I Know Website.

“With the help of the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation and How I Know Project, we are bringing the joy of learning and the professionalism of teaching back to Austin classrooms,” says Associate Supt. Dr. Lisa Goodnow. She continues,  “Austin embraces the charge to empower our teachers and build teachers’ capacity to design highly engaging lessons embedded with meaningful formative assessment practices.  Students own their learning when lessons are student centered and student powered.”

Schools involved in the How I Know initiative include: Crockett High School, Bailey Middle School, Barrington Elementary and Langford Elementary.

Austin’s Path Forward for Formative

There are numerous goals and targets set by the Austin team. Perhaps most important are the goals specific to professional learning practice.

As Dell Foundation project lead Cheryl Niehaus points out in a recent blog, there is a learning progression for teachers regarding the ten dimensions of formative assessment. The three PD focus areas for Austin align with the three formative assessment dimensions that are foundational to the entire practice:

  1. Learning Goals,
  2. Criteria for Success, and
  3. Eliciting Evidence of Student Learning

With the support of a professional development coach from WestEd, AISD will continue to develop skills along these dimensions.

In addition to the professional learning goals, AISD has identified the following goals for growth during the How I Know Initiative.

  • Teachers will design lessons that elicit evidence of student learning/progress toward learning goal and success criteria. To that end, teachers will engage in an online learning course that incorporates formative assessment practices.
  • Teachers will understand Criteria for Success relative to creating learning goals. Teachers will engage in an online learning course that incorporates formative assessment practices.
  • Administrators will practice utilizing, recognizing, and applying the FARROP when observing pilot teacher. WestEd coach will come for a 1:1 half day coaching session focused on working with principals to deepen their knowledge of the FARROP and their ability to make clear observation and give feedback to their teachers.
  • Educate district level staff to develop a common language and understanding of formative assessment success criteria. Professional learning for district level staff will be offered in Summer 2018 with several sessions focused on the definition of formative assessment and engaging with the FARROP.
  • Align Professional learning to formative assessment practices/needs. All district professional learning providers, both from within the organization, integrate formative assessment practices into their sessions.

Lisa and her team believe that a foundation of rigorous focus on relationships, SEL, and formative assessment practice will not only improve learning but will also encourage teachers to infuse joy into the classroom experience. Lisa emphasizes, “In Austin, All Means All. All students deserve the opportunity to develop their unique gifts and talents and all teachers deserve the opportunity to bring their creativity and joy to the learning experience.”

For more, see:

This post is a part of a series focused on the “How I Know: Designing Meaningful Formative Assessment” initiative sponsored by the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation. See the How I Know website and join the conversation on Twitter using #HowIKnow or #FormativeAssessment.

9 Ways To Make Student Work Authentic

Since the advent of formal education, many students have questioned the validity or relevance of the work they are doing. The question of “when am I going to use this?” has been launched at most veteran teachers countless times. Indeed, making learning more “real” has long been a goal of those who have promoted everything from project-based learning to career technical education. Both learners and learning facilitators want learning where the ‘why’ is an integral part of the process. It’s this desire to be “real” that has now found its way into our vernacular as “authenticity”. Authentic learning can be the guide to not only make learning more real but also more maximized and optimal for all learners. In a world where authenticity is often elusive in everything from our food to our entertainment, we are now holding our teaching and learning to a new standard of authenticity. Project-based learning practitioners, as well as those truly working on a more 21st century, personalized learning approach, are using authenticity as a foundational metric of both pedagogy and success.

So, what are the ways to make student work more authentic? Naturally, I have a list. However, when one creates a list like this, it does not mean that all projects, pursuits or student work has to include all 9 of these at any given time. However, working to include as many of these in one effort will certainly contribute to our students’ work as more authentic. And this more authentic work might lead to deeper learning, collaboration and opportunities.

Authentic Problems / Challenges

One of the best ways for learning to be authentic is to use real-world problems, challenges and questions as the primary pursuit. Real world challenges are everywhere, but typically not in textbooks or standardized curriculum. However, they are in the news, industries, our local communities and all around us. It’s a real problem if others are one acknowledging that it’s a legitimate issue or problem, as well as professionals are spending their time, resources and careers going after solutions. Often, solutions to these problems can change the world, create new career opportunities, lead to new products and services, and rewrite cultural norms and expectations. Personally, I don’t like the term problem solving because I don’t know if we ever solve most of our real-world problems. Do we ever solve, fix or eliminate poverty, racism, pollution, homelessness, drug abuse, sexual abuse and assault, etc.? We don’t typically, but we hopefully move the needle, address the challenge or problem, learn new information and applications and hopefully make someone’s life better, different or improved. But I do believe in students attacking real-world problems and generating their most authentic real-world solutions (not for solving, but attacking and addressing). Finally, having students tackle real-world challenges not only leads to more authentic learning but is how our best jobs are created going forward.

Authentic Audiences

Who is going to see our students’ final work? We all know that at one time, and unfortunately still in all too many cases, only the instructor sees our work. Next level up, our peers. However, we live in an age now where that is simply not enough. We want more people to see our students’ work for a variety of reasons. One, it can potentially motivate or focus students based on how many will see their work. But two, it’s the real world. Most of us work in environments where someone, often many different someones, see our work. And because of that, we care. We have an authentic reason to produce higher quality work. If no one was ever going to see or use our work, we might not care about producing our personal best. So, how do we expand the real audiences for our projects and student work? We need to think beyond the classroom. We need to engage other members or our school communities (staff, administrators, parents, community members, etc.) as a start. We can extend beyond that and include industry and business partners, government officials, higher education partners, community groups, non-profit organizations and others. All of these groups represent an expanded audience and those that can have a direct impact on the quality of the student work, as well as the many opportunities that can arise when we produce higher quality work. Finally, technology and things like social media platforms allow us to truly expand our audiences globally. More on that later when we talk tech.

Authentic Partners

In addition to working with one’s teachers and advisors, as well as one’s peers, authenticity is now influenced by the number of diverse partners a student can collaborate within a variety of capacities. Student work, as well as their future careers, can be positively affected and altered by the distinct partners that get involved. The potential partners are many. They include but are not limited to industry professionals, business leaders, government and civic leaders or officials, community leaders, non-profit leaders and staff, parent volunteers, higher education partners, entrepreneurs, alumni and more. What can these authentic partners offer our educators and their students? Again, the list includes, but is not limited to advice, critique and feedback, expertise, evaluation, judging competitive events, resources, equipment and technology, more partners, event coordination, access to their websites and social media for student work, actual problems and challenges they are currently working on, networks, audience members and more. Collaboration is the most important career readiness skill so let’s give our students lots of opportunities to collaborate with a variety of partners. Their work will improve and so will the opportunities, the relationships and our communities.

Authentic Clients

Providing our students with the client relationship is invaluable. If we use our partners – especially in the private and public sectors – they can provide real services and products created and designed for real needs and challenges they have. Students will care more about their work if they believe that a real person or persons will use their work and maybe benefit from it. In this client relationship, they will not only be more invested in the pursuit of high-quality work due to the authenticity, they will also be improving all of their employability skills. They will experience an authentic way to experience and learn the Four C’s and more. Why manufacture a random, arbitrary deadline when a client partner can give you their real one? Why create random challenges when clients can provide their real ones? Why create imaginary or simulated products when clients can offer up real ones that the students will identify with for sure?

Authentic Skills

We are starting to experience the transition between two worlds (economies as well). Simply, we evaluated student success based on what someone knew rather than what someone could do. Well, we have now realized that we are in a performance-based world. It’s not enough for our students to know something. They need to know how to apply what they know. And this represents the renewed emphasis on skills acquisition. We have technical skills, soft skills, technology skills, academic skills and much more. Project-based learning allows students to learn and improve across skill areas simultaneously. However, we need to identify the skill goals for the students, while offering them timely, regular and effective feedback on the development of these skills. So when working to produce high-quality student work, focusing on authentic skills will move that forward. For example, students need to know that collaborative skills (teamwork) are not only the most prized skill to folks like the Fortune 500 but that it’s something we can practice, improve. understand deeply and be assessed one as well. What else represents authentic skills? The answer could be technology skills (such as Adobe applications, Google applications, specific software), new literacy skills (social media), presentation skills and much more.

Authentic Tech / Authentic Gear

Just like the rest of us, students want to use professional equipment and the latest technology. Let’s face it, if the gear is authentic, then there seems to be more credibility automatically. Until recently, school equipment was fairly standard and did not reflect the real world counterpart of their work. But naturally, the tech revolution and more have made a huge impact. As an example, do we really want students to still make posters for their presentations or professional slide presentations complete with images, videos, links, survey tools, resources and more? Let’s consider things that make our work more professional and relevant – authentic. Consider things that would probably not be available at home. Although things like 3D printers are becoming more affordable and available for home use, what about welders, plasma cutters, high-end cameras, studios, specialized software, maker spaces, STEAM/STEM labs and so much more? Schools should be seeing what is happening both in industry and the real-world and offer students that access at school. All of our schools need to have pro labs in a variety of areas that cannot be found at home or online. If not, students may feel that their work is not of the same value or relevance like that of their professional counterparts – authenticity my friends.

Authentic Products / Authentic Outcomes

Project-based learning and other deeper learning approaches focus on having an actual public product that students can not only be proud of, but that can also be seen, shared, heard, experienced and even critiqued. The potential list of authentic products is endless, but just think about what professionals produce as their final work. It can be something that is designed and built. It can be a presentation, video or public service announcement. It could be printed materials, as well as a new website, logo or blog. Maybe it’s a new company or organization that is created. Maybe it’s an event or series of events. Again, professionals tend to make, build, create, design, produce and present things that others can often use, purchase or experience. Students tend to care about their work more when there are public expectations of their final products. And their final products often combine many of the authentic elements here such as authentic problems and challenges, technology and gear, audiences and collaborators and more. As educators, we care about the learning process and metacognitive journey that students will engage in by trying to produce their best public product.

Authentic Competition

Let’s be perfectly clear. I’m not advocating that all projects need to have a competitive component. That being said, it’s one avenue that can create more interest and authenticity for students. Why have athletics, performing arts and other co-curricular endeavors always been so successful? There are many reasons but the fact that they are competitive in nature is part of it. Those in the visual arts (video, media, art, graphic design) have long enjoyed participating in various local, regional, national and even international contests. Career Technical Education realized long ago that contest – such as Skills Challenge USA – were just one of the many ways to engage students, as well as make their work seem more real, relevant and applicable. Well, we can now add or create the contest, or competition, in all areas of student work if we choose. If we’re addressing a school or campus concern, maybe the administration can offer incentives, award the winning team or implement one of the solutions. Can our business and community partners add a competitive component such as awards, scholarships, internships or more? What if our students’ products, presentations and work used Shark Tank like tactics and allowed public audiences and collaborative partners to choose, as well as partner with, selected final works? There are literally thousands of online contests for almost every imaginable endeavor. Sometimes we just need to include this asan option or make our students aware.

Authentic Time

Finally, the term “real-time” has been used to mean a variety of things. But in this context, let’s think about how time is relevant to authenticity. First, project ideas and challenges can and should come from issues and needs that are current and timely. Think about all of the projects that probably were tackled this year related to timely issues in the news (things like the students speaking out against gun violence, the #metoo reaction and so many others). Many issues will probably be in our current news for a long time (think sustainability, poverty, racism, food insecurity, homelessness, etc.), but they may see greater attention due to an incident or big new story. We need to strike when the proverbial iron is hot in order to maximize our students’ interest, as well as the authenticity.

Wrapping Up

As always, this is not intended to be an exhaustive list, but rather a series of reminders, starting points or check-ins. The continual pursuit of connecting learning and the real world will only get more vital and intense. These various paths to authenticity can help solidify that connection.

For more, see:

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Show What You Know: The Shift to Competency

“G.P.A.s are worthless as a criteria for hiring, and test scores are worthless,” said Laszlo Bock, former head of HR at Google. “Google famously used to ask everyone for a transcript and G.P.A.s and test scores, but we don’t anymore, unless you’re just a few years out of school. We found that they don’t predict anything,” added Bock.

In the now famous 2013 interview with the New York Times, Bock signaled the beginning of the end of courses and credits as the primary measure of learning and the beginning of the show what you know era.

Professions (including law, real estate, and accounting) have long relied on test-based measured of readiness. Some professions have gone a step beyond to require demonstrated competence (e.g., doctors and pilots are required to pass tests, endure simulations, and perform in a variety of live settings).

In dynamic job categories including information technology (as Bock notes), hiring is increasingly based on demonstrated skills–a portfolio of referenced work– rather than transcripts and grades. Learning in these rapidly evolving fields is often online or blended, modular, and delivered in quick sprints in new formats like coding bootcamps or nanodegrees.

If the world is heading towards demonstrated competency over traditional pedigrees and there is a new opportunity to accelerate individual learning pathways, what does it mean for traditional education?

How would show what you know education work?

For a couple hundred years, we’ve been grouping children by birthdate and providing similar learning experiences to all of them. In the last 20 years, along with the addition of information technology, there have been efforts around the edges to modify this batch processing system with a bunch of tacked on services for younger kids and a patchwork quilt of courses for older kids.

But finally, around the edges, we’re beginning to see education programs breaking free of lockstep progress–places where students can move on when ready and get more time and support when needed. It started in alternative high schools and moved into credit recovery courses. With better access to digital tools, there’s a new generation of schools that personalize learning and power individual progress models. 

There are two big ideas behind the shift to competence in formal education. First, students should show what they know. It’s not about turning work in, earning points, or showing up to class, they should demonstrate in several ways that they have mastered important knowledge, skills, and abilities. Assessments in a competency-based system inform student learning as well as teacher judgments about concept mastery.

Second, students should progress when ready–after they’ve demonstrated mastery of important concepts that build a platform for future learning. For the system to promote equitable outcomes, it’s important that students receive timely, differentiated support based on their individual learning needs. The “move on when ready” commitment prevents passing learners along with a weak foundation which could prevent them from achieving higher level knowledge and skills.

On the list of risks to be avoided, it’s important that competencies not be a checklist of low level skills (e.g., I showed data analysis and integrity on that word problem so I can check them off the list). As leading competency advocate iNACOL says, “Competencies include explicit, measurable, transferable learning objectives that empower students.” Quality programs observe skill development in multiple contexts over time and may continue to provide feedback on success habits beyond initial mastery.

Bror Saxberg, Chief Learning Officer at the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative said that “What’s most important for careers is the ability to decide and do: investigate, experiment, solve problems, compare, and communicate.”

Because experts unconsciously combine a lot of knowledge and skills to do things effortlessly, added Bror, they need to be diligent about picking out competencies for learners to master. He also noted that beyond the basics, competencies are often domain specific. Good writing in history isn’t the same as good writing in science. The same is true for mindsets–think grit in athletics vs algebra. As a result competency systems should include lots of practice in deciding and doing domain-specific practices to build expertise.

To illustrate the limitations of checklist competencies, Saxberg adds tips for learning concepts, processes, and principles:

  • For facts, you do need to recall them, but in the context of “deciding and doing,” not isolated. If you don’t practice retrieving these facts in such a context, your mind does not develop the easy familiarity in context you need to bring them up “for real.”
  • For concepts, learners need to practice classifying things among the concepts and generate examples of them, again within a “deciding and doing” context, since that’s how concepts help experts in solving problems.
  • For processes, learners need to practice predicting what happens when inputs or conditions change in a process, and practice diagnosing what might be wrong given outputs or behaviors of processes, not merely “describe” the steps.
  • For principles, learners need to practice applying these to solve new situations, or to predict what will happen, in domain-specific situations.

10 Elements of a Competency-Based System

‘Show what you know’ and ‘move on when ready’ sound simple but they change everything about how learning systems are designed. There are at least 10 design elements that must be considered:  

  1. Competencies that in aggregate express a clear intellectual mission and in some detail what students should know and be able to do (see a summary of the 100 foundational concepts and habits of success at Minerva) of badges or credentials.
  2. Progress monitoring, historically thought of as grading, is a system of assessments that provides performance feedback to students to help them know if they’ve achieved mastery of a concept or skill.
  3. Grouping and scheduling systems—when, why and how groups are used when learning; not age cohorts as the dominant organizing principle.
  4. Achievement recognition that may include awarding badges or microcredentials to mark progress and replace metrics like class rank.
  5. Reporting progress to the outside world that still thinks in courses, credits, and grades. Initiatives like the Mastery Transcript Consortium will help. Clusters of microcredentials linked to job clusters called nanodegrees and specializations are another sign of progress.
  6. Content that supports self-directed and customized learning. There is more standards aligned open content but it doesn’t always include assessments that support competency-based progressions.
  7. Tools that facilitate competence-based challenges, collaboration, and scheduling. Most platforms and tools are still built for age cohorts.
  8. Teacher support, preparation and development for a dynamic environment with differentiated (i.e., different levels) and distributed (i.e., different locations) staffing.
  9. Evaluation systems that help to determine student learning and how experiences and adults are contributing.
  10. Community connections and supports for student success. Competency-based progress models are more equitable only if students that need it get more time and support.

Unfortunately, it’s tough to create and manage competency-based environments because there are not many models out there and the tool set is just not very good yet. But there are signs of progress where K-12 education is leading.  

Where K-12 is leading the shift to competence

While education policy is still monopolized by grade levels and measures of time, show what you know practices are becoming more common in K-12 and higher education. There are five ways formal education is leading the shift to a show what you know world:

  • Teacher selected microcredentials are rapidly replacing “sit and get” whole staff training in education. They give teachers a choice of what to work on and how to demonstrate progress.
  • Credit recovery, acceleration and developmental courses: by recognizing prior learning and focusing on closing gaps, struggling students can often make up a year of progress in a few months.
  • World language proficiency is inherently competence based.
  • New career and technical pathways in robotics and advanced manufacturing incorporate industry certifications.
  • Alternative postsecondary options including on demand courses, coding bootcamps, MOOCs, and skill certifications all point to flexible, modular, lifelong competency-based learning.

“Many districts are making the transition to competency-based education because they know that they can’t help all their students reach career and college readiness without greater personalization,” notes CompetencyWorks, a project of iNACOL.

Competency-based school models take advantage of new tools and strategies to enable students to learn at their own pace, any time and everywhere. The shift from marking time to ‘show what you know’ and ‘move on when ready’ will take a generation to become widespread but it has the potential to better prepare more young people for the innovation economy.

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This post was originally published on Forbes.

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Cookie Cutters and False Expectations

This piece was originally published on Transform Education Kentucky

Unlike this array of cookie cutters, every student is unique. He or she has unique DNA, a specific combination of attributes that make up his or her learning style, and a set of interests and aptitudes that guides his or her engagement in learning. Even though we recognize, accept, and celebrate each student’s unique characteristics, skills, and dispositions, our education system insists that common graduation requirements and standardized assessments are the best way to measure each student’s success. All state and federal accountability systems in the U.S. continue to gauge success using measures based on content-driven academic outputs, which are not the most accurate metric of post-secondary success.

In addition, we use these same outcomes to evaluate educational equity across all our schools and districts. True equity occurs when every student has received a high-quality set of learning opportunities from highly qualified educators that are unique to that student’s learning profile. Giving every kid the same set of learning methods without regard to whether those learning methods meet his or her needs is not equity. It isn’t even opportunity.

“We are striving for equity of outcomes”. Every principal, school superintendent, and chief state school officer as uttered these words at one time or another. What they really mean is “We are striving for every student to score the same on standardized tests”. Why in the world would we want every child’s outcomes to be the same, when every child is unique? Our aim should be that every student builds a set of skills and dispositions he or she needs to be successful and to do it in the context of learning opportunities and methods that sets him or her on the path to his or her own success.

Our current system puts students at a disadvantage as they prepare for their future because it assesses students with only one type of assessment and builds metrics based on the acquisition of knowledge using a standardized curriculum. That is a “one size fits all” model in a world that needs individual thinkers, learners, problem solvers, and doers.

This cookie-cutter approach is not productive or acceptable. Our students are entering a world where their future will depend on a skill set not focused on a common set of knowledge but on adapting and creating a “personalized profile” and self-advocacy for individual progression through self-interest. Standardized curriculums and assessment measures will not help students achieve the true readiness required for post-secondary life in the 21st century.

We are not advocating a move away from rigorous, high quality standards and measures–quite the opposite. We are advocating that every student have a personalized pathway to the highest standards of rigorous learning within their individual readiness profile–a Learner Portrait™ based on the mastery of a common set of skills and dispositions.

As we have discussed previously, The Paradigm Flip™ from content knowledge to this common set of skills and dispositions is the critical piece. This Learner Portrait outlines the graduation requirements a student must achieve to succeed in the 21st century.

In the formative years (PreK-Grade 5), students need to learn these skills and dispositions in the context of a common set of foundational knowledge acquisition. This is the “knowing” phase of their learning journey. Assessment at this phase measures how well they understand this knowledge acquisition as well as measuring their mastery of the Learner Portrait skills and dispositions appropriate to their grade level.

In grades 6-10, students’ content and assessments become less standardized as they explore areas of knowledge that are of interest to them and aligned to their strengths.

Ultimately, students enter the “Doing” phase of their journey (grade 11 and beyond), where their knowledge acquisition is completely personalized and the summative measurement of mastery of the Learner Portrait skills and dispositions occurs. Learning opportunities are focused on the application of the knowledge, skills and dispositions for which each student has demonstrated mastery.

An adapted future requires that every student has a learning environment that replaces the current cookie cutter model of assessment, accountability, and graduation requirements with the opportunity to achieve mastery of the skills and dispositions in his or her unique Learner Portrait.

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How IMS is Leading on Interoperability and Credentialing

Plumbing–you don’t think about it, but can’t imagine life without it. In education, data is now the plumbing and IMS Global Learning Consortium is the leading standards-setting body.

This week, IMS hosted the Global Learning Impact Leadership Institute in Baltimore.

At the conference, IMS announced the Competency and Academic Standards Exchange (CASE) Registry, a free resource that will allow content providers to align with standards from all 50 state standards.

“Georgia is proud to be the first state to fully adopt the CASE standard,” said state Superintendent Richard Woods (see our December podcast with Deputy Superintendent Caitlin McMunn Dooley, where she discusses CASE as a core component of their data architecture).

HigherEd Integrations

The Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) standard made it easier to access digital learning resources, apps, and tools within any platform. LTI (now v1.3) has been incorporated into more than 70 learning platforms and hundreds of learning apps.

LTI Advantage is a package of extensions built on LTI to add new features, including names and role-provisioning services, deep linking, and assignment and grade services. IMS Executive Director Rob Abel said HigherEd leaders were excited about LTI Advantage.

K-12 Interoperability

LearnPlatform, the edtech management and rapid-cycle evaluation system, announced at the Institute an IMPACT-Ready designation, a way for edtech companies to demonstrate their commitment to driving positive student outcomes. To achieve the designation, providers commit to ensuring student data privacy, signing the Project Unicorn vendor pledge, providing transparency and equity in their accessibility, and using data sharing standards.

Congratulations also to Beatriz Arnillas, Senior Educational Advisor at itslearning, and Lenny Schad, Chief Technology Information Officer, Houston ISD on winning the IMS Leadership Award.

Better Open Badges

In February, a year after taking over the initiative, IMS announced Open Badges 2.0. The updated badge standards ensure learner-control of credentials, demonstrate rigor of achievement, and guarantee that learners are able to display their badges on and share their badges from any IMS certified platform. Products that are certified can be found at IMS Certified Product Directory.

Two big advantages of OBv2, according to Abel, are verifiable evidence and the ability to search evidence not just with keywords. Big employers like Microsoft and EY will begin using OBv2. Abel thinks most school districts will begin to add badges to transcripts in the not-too-distant future, but it will be a hybrid world with courses, grades and badges as evidence.

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Smart Review | Inventing Ourselves: The Secret Life of the Teenage Brain

My oldest child is a year away from middle school. When new acquaintances ask about the ages of my children and hear this, the most common response is one of sympathetic dread. If a parent has had a child go through it, they give warnings about the impending doom (e.g., the risky behavior, the attitudes, the reliance on friends, the withdrawal from self-disclosure). If a parent still has young children, I can often see the relief in their eyes that they do not yet have to worry about the onslaught of drama and uncertainty that stereotypes adolescence.

These societal perceptions of the dramatic, risk-taking, friend-obsessed, petulant teenagers are pervasive. Adolescents are often characterized as a confounding and almost alien population by adults. And this narrative is disseminated through the production of music, movies, television shows, and other productions aimed at teenagers themselves. In both personal and educational circles, the time period of adolescence is tolerated at best and full of dread, agony, and profound risk at worst.

In Inventing Ourselves: The Secret Life of the Teenage Brain, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore uses neuroscience to push back on these long-held negative perceptions to reframe adolescence as a unique and actually productive developmental period. Blakemore puts this research into a historical context, explaining that it is only recently–within the last couple decades–that scientists have realized that the human brain continues to develop past childhood. She uses evidence from the growing body of research gained through modern MRI imaging to explain that the behaviors often associated with teenagers, and dismissed as inappropriate and aberrant, make sense given the physiological and cognitive developmental changes happening in the brain during this time. She uses new research and subsequent understandings of brain development to help explore the underpinnings of the negative stereotypes. Getting beyond the fearful tropes and cultural memes of negativity by clinically examining the underlying behaviors and biological processes, she offers insight and background on adolescent development. A clear set of findings is laid out that contextualizes this time as one with specific features, full of opportunity, that is essential to healthy adulthood.

Reading this book was an illuminating experience. It provided a multi-layered overview of recent developments in the body of research literature on this oft-discussed, but minimally understood, topic. The information is clearly and thoughtfully presented. There is a great deal of technical detail on the research studies that lay the groundwork for the observations put forth. Throughout the book, Blakemore seamlessly couches the scientific findings with relatable anecdotes and stories, creating an enjoyable and informative narrative that is approachable for the average reader, and especially useful for parents, teachers, and educational policy advocates.

Relevance & Implications

With parenting an adolescent very near on my horizon, I read this book hoping to glean information that will help me personally navigate this timeframe with my own adolescent. I also looked to gain insights into educational policy and practice around how we approach and structure schooling in the middle and high school years. While there are a variety of school age groupings across the country, the separation of early adolescents from younger and older peers in junior, middle, and high schools is the predominant model. And schools seem to be in a perpetual cycle of implementing new instructional models to have students be engaged, happy, and achieving. A better understanding of what these learners have as positive attributes, and a more nuanced interpretation of the causes of their challenges, offers a chance for educators to consider how to better design learning experiences and environments. This book provides insights into exactly that.

Blakemore cautions that “using neuroscience to inform educational strategy isn’t necessarily straightforward” (p. 177). Readers, however, can still gain broader insights from this research that could be used as guiding principles when designing learning environments for adolescents. As someone who researches and studies educational innovations, some interesting points of intersection I found between Blakemore’s research and current educational policy and practice are:

  • Learning experiences should be designed in such a way to utilize the developmental processes which students are undergoing. The research is clear that adolescents put more weight on feedback from peers. They are also very social beings. Therefore, collaborative projects and environments might make more sense than traditional models of schooling.
  • Open-ended problems, rather than closed fact recall, might be more appropriate curricular designs for adolescents to work on in groups. The adolescent penchant toward exploration, risk-taking, and immediate feedback make movements such as deeper learning, problem based learning, and applied learning a natural home during the middle and high school years.
  • The research in the book shows that adolescence is a time of finding one’s self-identity and exploring one’s interests, passions, likes, and dislikes. Schools should design both group and personalized learning experiences with broad, not narrow, paths of activities that allow for and promote this time of exploration. Achieving strategic outcomes will require a variety of tactical approaches. Such systems have been developed for special education, english language learners, poverty, and cultural background. Adolescent characteristics require the same degree of maturation in educational support.
  • An explicit examination of basic structural features such as the hours which schools operate, the number of transitions students go through during the school day, and the parsing of subjects into content disciplines should be undertaken. School boards and school leaders need to factor in that, as Blakemore points out, students are biologically driven to sleep later, that relationship stability with peers matters tremendously, and that they respond more to incentive than punishment at this stage of development.
  • Professional development that includes an understanding of adolescent development is needed to assist educators in discerning what is within the range of normal, if obstinate behavior, and what is of possible concern due to developmental delay, emotional crisis, or mental health concerns.
  • Blakemore explains that, because of all the biological and neurological changes adolescents undergo, it is a vulnerable time. An implication of this is that it is important to have smooth re-entry processes for students that go “off-track” as development is non-linear. The natural-risk taking behaviors of adolescents will result in a variety of mistakes that will require more than correction. Students need engagement aimed at recovery, reflection, and empowerment informed by their developmental characteristics.

Who Should Read this Book

This growing body of research on understanding the adolescent brain and the biological changes it undergoes highlighted in this book is empowering for all who interact with or make decisions about adolescents. This maturing field of study allows us to understand the changes that take place during this time, realize the distinct physiological causes, and most importantly, put them in context as necessary for developing into productive and healthy adults.

If we can understand this time period, we can help teens, and those around them, effectively navigate it. We can construct home and school environments that positively capitalize on the natural creativity, exploration, and even risk-taking tendencies of teenagers. And we can have a better understanding of behaviors that fall outside the normal course of development and might require additional supports or interventions. With this information, policy-makers, administrators, teachers, parents, and health care providers must be prepared to assess current structures and institutions and willing to shift, adjust, and adapt approaches when they contradict what this educational neuroscience tells us.

Blakemore reminds us that it is also important to educate adolescents, themselves, about what is happening in their, and their peers’, brains. Knowing that they are part of a natural process can provide an explanation for their friends’, and even their own, behavior. This can hopefully dispel some of the internal chaos they often feel and help them understand their strong emotional responses to their world, their natural impulsivity, and their deep concern for peer approval. The book ends with a call to action to “celebrate” the crucial and transformational time that adolescence is. Empowered with new information, adolescents, themselves, and all who support them, can turn understanding into actionable efforts.

Innovation: Creating and Learning in AR, VR

Every day brings a new opportunity to implement a new tool or method into the classroom, and what better way than to have students be able to immerse in a learning experience. Augmented and virtual reality are becoming more commonly used in K-12 classrooms and higher ed for this purpose. With the increased focus on and questions surrounding the use of AR and VR tools, educators and parents may be wondering about the benefits for student learning. In a recent report from Common Sense, 62% of the parents surveyed, stated they believe that VR will provide educational experiences, this same belief was shared by 84% of parents surveyed, who have children already using VR. In the recently published book Learning Transported, author Jaime Donally focuses a chapter on the reasons that these tools should be welcomed into our classrooms. Some reasons include more authentic learning, innovative learning spaces and a means to transform how students are learning.

The use of AR and VR is about providing powerful opportunities for students to explore objects or places, in ways that traditional tools such as textbooks and videos cannot provide. It enables students to have more control over how they are learning. It is through these augmented and virtual reality tools and apps that we bring never before possible learning experiences, such as travel and the use of holograms, to students. Students can travel anywhere around the world or outer space even and explore these places more closely, looking at what they want and learning in a more authentic way. It is a truly personalized way to learn and one which serves to engage students more by helping them to drive their learning and exploration.

Even more important than having students be able to immerse in learning by interacting with the content, it is of far greater benefit to move students from being simply consumers to being the creators. With the different educational AR and VR tools now available, we not only afford students the possibility of interacting with these objects as they have been, but we create a more engaging opportunity for them to develop the skills that will benefit them in the future. Learning how to create with these different tools and in some cases, being able to collaborate with their peers on projects, will help students to develop critical 21st-century skills. Students will build their ability to problem-solve, to think critically, and to enhance their creativity in the learning process.

Technology of the Future: Tools to get started with AR and VR in your classroom

With so many different apps available, it can be difficult to figure out where to start. As many wind down the school year, this can be a great opportunity to try one of these tools within your classroom. Students learn how to interact with these tools very quickly, it boosts student engagement, which is something that may be decreasing at this time of the year. Here are two tools and how we used them. They each offer many options for classroom use as well as ready-made examples that can be used to get started.

As a long-standing fan of technology and the endless possibilities, any time I learn about a new tool, I either immediately create an account and try to figure it out on my own or I learn just enough about it to get my students started working on something. In the last couple of years, I’ve come across CoSpacesEDU and Metaverse. I had no idea what to expect other than knowing I would be able to include unique learning experiences for my students, through the use of augmented and virtual reality tools.

So what’s the learning curve with some of these tools? Personally, I am the type of learner who would rather struggle and figure things out on my own first. Only after I have seemingly exhausted all of my efforts, will I then turn to YouTube or the tool’s website for video tutorials, or connect with other educators in a variety of educational communities found on social media.

CoSpaces: Bring a story to life

Two years ago, when I started creating with CoSpacesEDU, a virtual reality platform, I was immediately amazed at the possibilities for creating my own virtual reality space. Initially, there was a bit of a learning curve, but I was determined to work through it on my own. The benefit is that by allowing myself to push through the challenges I encountered, it helped me to better understand some areas that might require me to step in and help my students as they created their own space. I wanted to be prepared for their questions, and be able to help some, but not too much, as it is important for students to learn to problem solve and develop these skills on their own.

In prior years, students in Spanish II would narrate their childhood by creating a drawing and writing a story below their illustration. Authentic work such as this helps students to connect more to the content and it is a great way for teachers to learn more about students. However, this year, I wanted to take a different approach and decided to try CoSpacesEDU, with my Spanish II classes. I thought it would be a fun way to create a story and then be able to use headsets to walk through the spaces they created.

I started by grouping students randomly, having them select from chapter vocabulary cards, and then using the newer “Collaborate” feature of CoSpaces EDU, to have them create their story together. Students can now be placed in groups and collaborate on one project. Students began creating their spaces, adding in objects, animations and sound, using Blockly to code and more. They were amazed at the ability to collaborate in the same space and see objects moving on each of their screens. They worked as a team to create amazing, memorable stories that help them to meaningfully practice the content, narrate a story and have fun while learning.

We know that using technology just for the sake of using it does not make sense. However using technology that enables students to create, collaborate, problem-solve and be curious in learning, leads to more motivation and student engagement. It was a risk to do this, but one which had tremendous benefits for all of us “learners” in the classroom.


Metaverse enables the user to create an “experience” which includes activities and different features, for augmented and virtual reality. Creating with Metaverse offers students immersive ways to interact with the content. It can be rather simple to get started, as Metaverse has a library full of helpful tutorial videos and they are also available through the chat feature within the platform. Metaverse can be used to create an immersive, interactive learning “experience”, where students have so many choices in design, libraries full of different characters, GIFS, various objects, 360 images or videos, portals, Google Vision options and more.

When we began using Metaverse, I wasn’t sure if students would be able to navigate the platform (the layout is a storyboard). What I found was that students were able to quickly create their own experiences, which led me to ask them to also facilitate in the class and answer any questions that their classmates had.  What I noticed was an emergence of “student leaders,” a team of Metaverse creators, 8th-grade students who were sharing their knowledge and excited to do so.

How to use it? Have students create a quiz, a fun game, or simply tell a story.

Learning together

I don’t have all of the answers, but I enjoy being able to turn to students for help. I enjoy learning with and from them. Empowering students with the opportunity to share their skills brings about positive changes in the classroom, especially in terms of peer relationships and collaboration. Trying out new technologies shows we are interested in bringing new ideas and ways to learn into our classrooms, which is a good model for students.

Want to know more? There are a lot of resources available. I recommend joining in the weekly #ARVRinedu Twitter chat on Wednesday nights at 8 CT/9ET or taking a look at the many resources available on Jaime Donally’s website.

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